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The Research Process: Step-by-Step

This guide walks you through the steps of the research process


The following are examples of the correct form of in-text citations and works cited entries for a variety of common sources. These examples should not be considered exhaustive, however.  If you are unsure how to cite a particular source, talk to your instructor or a reference librarian.  For a more complete explanation of the use of MLA style, please refer to:

Modern Language Association of America. MLA Handbook. 8th ed. New York: MLA, 2016. Print.

For examples from other citation styles, please visit the Citing and Avoiding Plagiarism guide:

Research and Citation Managers- Zotero & Mendeley

Works Cited Examples - Articles - MLA style

Journal article, one author (Kozak 29596)

Kozak, Metin. “Introducing Destination Benchmarking: A Conceptual Approach.” Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research 28.2 (2004):

281-97. Print.

Journal article, two authors (Kelley and Turley 400)

Kelley, Scott W., and L. W. Turley. “The Effect of Content on Perceived Affect of Super Bowl Commercials.” Journal of Sport Management

18.3 (2004): 398-420. Print.

Article, monthly magazine (Booe 133)

Booe, Martin. “The Wizards of Oz.” Bon Appetit Mar. 2005: 130-37. Print.

Article, monthly magazine, two authors (Foster and Bradach 98)

Foster, William, and Jeffrey Bradach. “Should Nonprofits Seek Profits?” Harvard Business Review Feb. 2005: 92-100. Print.

Article, weekly magazine (Lipper and Hirsh 2829)

Lipper, Tamara, and Michael Hirsh. “Stepping into the Fray.” Newsweek 16 June 2003: 26-29. Print.

Newspaper article, edition stated on masthead (Chang F1)
Note: F1+ should be read as section F, beginning on page 1, and then + means that the article continue on nonconsecutive pages.

Chang, Kenneth. “The Melting (Freezing) of Antarctica.” New York Times 2 Apr. 2002, late ed.: F1+. Print.

Newspaper article, no edition stated (Grant)

Grant, Peter. “Offers for Adelphia’s Assets Pour In.” Wall Street Journal 1 Feb. 2005: A5. Print.

Newspaper editorial, with no author (“Federal Deficit”)
Note: If the editorial has an author, intext citation should follow the same format as a newspaper article. If the editorial has an author, include the author’s name in the citation before the editorial title as: Last_Name, First_name.

“Federal Deficit Will Stress Bush Agenda.” Editorial. Denver Post 2 Feb. 2005: 6B. Print.

Recipe in a magazine (Touchet)

Touchet, Alexis. “Fennel and Endive Salad with Orange Vinaigrette.” Recipe. Gourmet Feb. 2005: 70. Print.

Recipe in a magazine with no author ("Crumb-Crusted")

"Crumb-Crusted Trout with Spinach and Mushroom Stuffing." Recipe. Gourmet Apr. 2005: 30. Print.

Works Cited Examples - Electronic Resources - MLA style

Article, Web magazine (Gleadle)

Gleadle, Fiona. “Playing With Food.” Wine International 1 May 2002. Web. 18 Feb. 2005.

Article, newspaper Web site ("Scientists Speak")

"The Scientists Speak." Editorial. New York Times. New York Times, 20 Nov. 2007. Web. 3 Dec. 2007.

Chart, Web site ("Verb Tenses")

"Verb Tenses." Chart. The OWL at Purdue. Purdue U Online Writing Lab, 2001. Web. 26 Jan. 2009.

Blog entry (Lessig)

Lessig, Lawrence. "Free Debates: More Republicans Call on RNC." Lessig 2.0. N.p., 4 May 2007. Web. 21 June 2007.

Home page (Liu)

Liu, Alan, ed. Home Page. Voice of the Shuttle. Dept. of English, U of California, Santa Barbara, n.d. Web. 3 Sept. 2009.

Company Web site ("Wedding Cake")

"Wedding Cake Cutting Guide." Wilton Group, Inc., 2005. Web. 19 Feb. 2005.

Magazine article, full-text online database (“Call”)
Note: n. pag. is an abbreviation for "no pagination."

“Call of the East.” The Economist 19 Feb. 2005., U.S. ed.: n. pag. LexisNexis. Web. 19 Feb. 2005.

Journal article, full-text online database (Zadek 130)
Note: 82.12 should be read as volume 82, issue 12.

Zadek, Simon. "The Path to Corporate Responsibility." Harvard Business Review 82.12 (2004): 125-133. Business Source Premier.

      Web. 16 Feb. 2005.

Newspaper article, full-text online database (Hudson)
Note: A1 refers to section A and page 1.

Hudson, Kris. “Center’s Lessons Added Up.” Denver Post 6 Dec. 2004, final ed.: A1. Lexis-Nexis. Web. 22 Feb. 2005.

ESHA ("Ingredient: Rice, wild")

"Ingredient: Rice, wild, ckd." The Food Processor SQL. Vers. 10.6.3. Salem, OR: ESHA Research, 2010. Software.


Works Cited Examples - Books and Anthologies - MLA style

Book by one author (Brophy 45)

Brophy, Robert J. Robinson Jeffers: Dimensions of a Poet. New York: Fordham UP, 1995. Print.

Book with two or three authors (Werther and Davis 288) (Edginton, Hudson, and Lankford 210-25)

Werther, William B., Jr. and Keith Davis. Human Resources and Personnel Management. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993. Print.

Edginton, Christopher R., Susan D. Hudson, and Samuel V. Lankford. Managing Recreation, Parks, and Leisure Services: An

Introduction. Champaign: Sagamore, 2001. Print.

Book with more than three authors (Gilman et al. 314)

Gilman, Sander, et al. Hysteria beyond Freud. Berkeley: U of California P, 1993. Print.

Multiple books, same author (Brophy, Dimensions 45) (Brophy, Myth 143)

Brophy, Robert J. Robinson Jeffers: Dimensions of a Poet. New York: Fordham UP, 1995. Print.

---. Robinson Jeffers: Myth, Ritual, and Symbol in His Narrative Poems. Cleveland: P of Case Western Reserve U, 1973. Print.

Edited book (Nuwer xii)

Nuwer, Hank, ed. The Hazing Reader. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2004. Print.

Chapter in an edited book (Arnold 52, 85-87)
Note: When citing multiple pages, insert a comma in between.

Arnold, James C. “Hazing and Alcohol in a College Fraternity.” The Hazing Reader. Ed. Hank Nuwer. Bloomington:

Indiana UP, 2004. 51-105. Print.

Book with a corporate author (ESRI 210-15)

ESRI Business Information Solutions. The Sourcebook of ZIP Code Demographics. 17th ed. [Redlands]:

ESRI Business Information Solutions, 2003. Print.

Recipe from a cookbook with one author (Hazan)

Hazan, Marcella. "Filetti Farciti di Pesce Turchino." Recipe. Marcella’s Italian Kitchen. New York: Knopf, 1996. 17-23. Print.

Recipe from an edited cookbook including recipes by many authors (Parseghian)

Parseghian, Pam. "Pork Chops Provencal." Recipe. The Best of Cook's Magazine: Volume Two. Ed. Olga Rigsby.

Bridgeport, CT: Pennington, 1989. 159. Print.

Dictionary entry (“Palapa”)
Note: since there is no author listed, you are only citing the word.

“Palapa.” The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 4th ed. 2000. Print.

Works Cited Examples - Other - MLA style

Company Profile
The generic format of a works cited entry for a company profile in Business and Company Resource Center is: "Company Name." Company Profile. Business and Company Resource Center. Web. Date of Access (date month year).

("company name")

"Darden Restaurants." Company Profile. Business and Company Resource Center. Web. 14 Sept. 2010.

Film or Video Recording
The generic format of a works cited entry for a film or video is: Title of Film. Dir. Director_Name. Perf. Performer_Name. Distributor, Year of release.


Enemy at the Gates. Dir. JeanJacques Annaud. Perf. Joseph Fiennes, Jude Law, and Rachel Weisz. Paramount Pictures, 2001. DVD.

Neighborhood Scout
The generic format of a city profile from Neighborhood Scout is: "City, State." Neighborhood Scout. Location, Inc., n.d. Web. Date of Access (date month year). URL.

("city name")

"Denver, CO (17th Ave/Monaco Pky)." NeighborhoodScout. Location Inc., n.d. Web. 16 March 2010. <>.

Personal Interview
The generic format of a works cited entry for a personal interview that you conducted: Last_Name_interviewee, First_name interviewee. Kind of Interview (Personal, Telephone, Email). Date of interview.


Clinton, Bill. Personal interview. 4 July 2005.

ESHA Research's Food Processor database ("Ingredient")

"Ingredient: Rice, wild, ckd." The Food Processor SQL. Vers. 10.6.3. Salem, OR: ESHA Research, 2010. Software.

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