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Citing and Avoiding Plagiarism


The most recent editions of Turabian's A Manual for Writers and The Chicago Manual of Style are kept at the Reference Desk in the Library. Stop by the desk if you need help or would like to consult the manuals.

The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2010.

Turabian, Kate L. A manual for writers of research papers, theses, and dissertations : Chicago style for students, 7th edition. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2007.


The Author-Date System has long been used by those in the physical, natural, and social sciences. In this system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and date of publication. The short citations are amplified in a list of references, where full bibliographic information is provided.

Each example includes an in-text citation [T] followed by a reference-list entry [R].


Single Author

T: (Gutman 1999, 41)

R: Gutman, Robert W. 1999. Mozart: A cultural biography. New York: Harcourt Brace.

Two Authors

T: (Hock and Price 2004, 93-4)

R: Hock, Randolph, and Gary Price. 2004. The extreme searcher’s Internet handbook: A guide for the serious searcher. Medford: CyberAge Books.

Four or More Authors

T: (Davidson et al. 1988, 149)

R: Davidson, William, Daniel Sweeney, Thomas Jones, and Ronald Stampfl. 1988. Retailing management. 6th ed. New York: Wiley.

No Author

If no personal author's name is listed on the title page, the organization/corporation is listed as author, even if it is also given as publisher.

T: (JIST Works 2000, 73)

R: JIST Works. 2000. NAICS desk reference: The North American industry classification system desk reference. Indianapolis: JIST Works.

Book: Multivolume

When citing the work as a whole, give the total number of volumes after the title (or editor). If published over several years, give the range of years.

T: (Wright 1968-78, 2:341)

R: Wright, Sewell. 1968-78. Evolution and the genetics of populations. 4 vols. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

When citing only one volume:

T: (Wright 1969, 341)

R: Wright, Sewell. 1969. Theory of gene frequencies. Vol. 2 of Evolution and the genetics of populations. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

Chapter in a Book

T: (Willson 2005, 52-3)

R: Willson, Jr., Robert F. 2005. William Shakespeare's Theater. In The Greenwood companion to Shakespeare: A comprehensive guide for students, ed. Joseph Rosenblum, 47-64. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Note: No quotations are used around book chapters in this format.

Book Published Electronically

If a book is available in more than one format, you should cite the version you consulted, but you may also list the other formats. If an access date is required by your publisher or discipline, include it parenthetically at the end of the citation, as in the second example below.

T: (Kurland and Lerner 1987)

R: Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. 1987. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (accessed July 14, 2009).


For additional examples, see pages 229-247 in the Turabian Manual (2007).


Journals vs Magazines: Journals are normally cited by volume and date, while magazines are normally cited by date alone. If in doubt whether a particular periodical is a journal or magazine, use the journal format if the volume number is easily located, and the magazine format if it is not.

Journal with Issue Number Available

T: (Simmons and Becker-Olsen 2006, 161)

R: Simmons, Carolyn, and Karen Becker-Olsen. 2006. Achieving marketing objectives through social sponsorships. Journal of Marketing 70, no. 4:154-169. 

Journal with no Issue Number

T: (Graham 2006, 157)

R: Graham, Sarah. 2006. Impossible to hold: Women and culture in the 1960s. Journal of American Studies 40:156-159.

Article in an Online Journal

Just like print journals, only adding the URL and also the access date in parentheses at the end only if required by your professor or discipline. Include a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) if the journal lists one (see the second example below). If no DOI is available, list a URL.

T: (Hlatky et al. 2002)

R: Hlatky, Mark A., Derek Boothroyd, Eric Vittinghoff, Penny Sharp, and Mary A. Whooley. 2002. Quality-of-life and depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women after receiving hormone therapy. Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 5 (February 6),

T: (Kossinets and Watts 2009, 411)

R: Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. 2009. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115:405–50. Accessed February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.

Article in an Online Database

This is the same as for online journals as listed above, including use of access date. Also include the URL of the main entrance of the database.

T: (Thomas 1956, 71)

R: Thomas, Trevor M. Wales: Land of Mines and Quarries. Geographical Review 46, no. 1 (1956): 59-81.

Entire Website

Websites may be cited in running text ("According to the National Weather Service's website, warmer temperatures may be expected...") instead of in a note, and they are commonly omitted from the reference list as well. The following examples show the more formal version of the citations. Add the date the material was last accessed for time-sensitive data or if you are required.

T: (National Weather Service)

R: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. NOAA's National Weather Service. U.S. Dept. of Commerce. (accessed January 17, 2010).


T: (Reed 2006, 21)

R: Reed, Stanley. 2006. Seeing Past the War. Business Week, August 21.


Newspaper articles may be cited in running text (“As William Niederkorn noted in a New York Times article on June 20, 2002, . . . ”) instead of in a note or an in-text citation, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography or reference list as well. The following examples show the more formal version of the citations.

T: (Seward 2006)

R: Seward, Zachary. 2006. Colleges Expand Early Admissions. Wall Street Journal. December 14. Eastern edition.

Blog Entry

T: (Posner 2010)

R: Posner, Richard. 2010. “Double Exports in Five Years?” The Becker-Posner Blog, February 21.


 For additional examples, see pages 247-254 in the Turabian Manual (2007). 

Personal Interviews & Films


Personal Interview

Unpublished interviews are best cited in the text, though they occasionally appear in reference lists when they are critical to the writer's argument or frequently cited.

R: Clown, Krusty T. 2007. Interview by Bart Simpson. Tape recording. February 10. Butler University, Indianapolis.

Personal Email or Text Message

E-mail and text messages may be cited in running text and they are rarely listed in a reference list.

T: (John Doe, e-mail message to author, February 28, 2010)


T: (John Doe, pers. comm.)


R: E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial. 1982. Film. Directed by Steven Spielberg. Hollywood: Universal Pictures.

Recorded Film

R: Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone. 2001. DVD. Directed by Chris Columbus. Hollywood: Warner.

For additional examples, see pages 260-263 and 266 -269 in the Turabian Manual (2007).

Sound Recordings & Musical Compositions

The Author-Date System is inappropriate for most audiovisual materials. If you must use it and include audiovisual items, they are best mentioned in the running text and then grouped in the Reference List under a subheading such as "Sound Recordings."

Entire Album

R: The Beatles. 1967. Sgt. Pepper’s lonely heart club’s band. Capitol Records SMAS-2653. LP.

Individual Song

R: Sinatra, Frank. 1996. Strangers in the night. On my way: The best of Frank Sinatra. Warner. Audiocassette.

Spoken Word Recording

R: Lee, Harper. 1988. To Kill a Mockingbird. Read by Sally Darling. Recorded Books. Cassette.

Music Score

R: Beethoven, Ludwig van. 1932. Symphony no. 7 in A Major, Op. 92. Boston: Oliver Ditson.

Live Performance R: NONE - Citation of live performances is only done in notes, not in the Author-Date System. Instead, include the performance details in the running text.


For additional examples, see pages 265-270 in the Turabian Manual (2007).

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