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Encyclopedia of Management
Theory X and Theory Y
Theory X and Theory Y are theories of management developed by MIT Sloan School of Management professor Douglas McGregor and presented in his 1960 book The Human Side of Enterprise. Each theory is based on a different attitude managers take toward their employees. In Theory X, management acts from the assumption that employees have an inherent dislike of work, which they will indulge if so allowed, and therefore prevent this by adopting a hierarchical system of management in order to closely supervise all levels of production and work within the organization. Because of the negative view of workers, negative incentives tend to be used to guide behavior instead of offering rewards for positive results. Similarly, job roles are highly structured because of the assumption that a dislike of work will prevent employees from taking initiative. Theory Y, on the other hand, assumes work is a natural pursuit that employees can enjoy, and that the conditions can be created in which employees will actively seek out tasks and responsibility. This is more likely than Theory X to lead to a climate of trust and open communication. Theory Y is an application to the workplace of much of the work of psychologist Abraham Maslow.
Theory x and theory Y. (2015). In J. Mcray (Ed.), Leadership glossary: Essential terms for the 21st century. Santa Barbara, CA: Mission Bell Media. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.mga.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/mbmlg/theory_x_and_theory_y/0?institutionId=3733
Find out more about Theory X and Theory Y at the link below:
Theory X and Theory Y
Kessler, E. H. (2013). Encyclopedia of Management Theory. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Theory Z is a management theory based on the assumption that greater employee involvement leads to greater productivity. Theory Z was proposed by Douglas McGregor shortly before his death, in an attempt to address the criticisms of his Theory X and Theory Y. McGregor's ideas were expanded by William Ouchi in his book Theory Z (1981), reflecting the Japanese approach to human resource management. Theory Z advocates greater employee participation in management, greater recognition of employees’ contributions, better career prospects and security of employment, and greater mutual respect between employees and managers. See also alphabet theories of management
Theory Z. (2011). In J. Law, Business: the ultimate resource (3rd ed.). London, UK: A&C Black. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.mga.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/ultimatebusiness/theory_z/1?institutionId=3733
Deming's 14 Points
Find out more about W. Edwards Deming
1. Create constancy of purpose for improvement of product and service.
2. Adopt the new philosophy.
3. Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality.
4. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag alone. Instead, minimize total cost by working with a single supplier.
5. Improve constantly and forever every process for planning, production and service.
6. Institute training on the job.
7. Adopt and institute leadership.
8. Drive out fear.
9. Break down barriers between staff areas.
10. Eliminate slogans, exhortations and targets for the workforce.
11. Eliminate numerical quotas for the workforce and numerical goals for management.
12. Remove barriers that rob people of pride of workmanship. Eliminate the annual rating or merit system.
13. Institute a vigorous programme of education and self-improvement for everyone.
14. Put everybody in the company to work to accomplish the transformation.
Deming, W. Edwards. (2003). In Capstone Press, Capstone encyclopedia of business. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.mga.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/capstonebus/deming_w_edwards/0?institutionId=3733
Top Down and Bottom Up
Originating and proceeding from the top echelons and percolating to the bottom, as opposed to Bottom-up.
Relating to an approach that relies heavily on input from the bottom tier of management and makes strategic decisions and identifies opportunities based on lessons learned at the ground level.
Bottom Up. (2013). In G. T. Kurian, The AMA dictionary of business and management. New York, NY: AMACOM, Publishing Division of the American Management Association. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.mga.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/amadictbm/bottom_up/0?institutionId=3733
Top Down. (2013). In G. T. Kurian, The AMA dictionary of business and management. New York, NY: AMACOM, Publishing Division of the American Management Association. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.mga.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/amadictbm/top_down/0?institutionId=3733
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